18 June 2017

Street or road names in Tel Aviv - part 2

This is a follow on from a blog post I wrote earlier in the week.  It is a worthy subject because the calibre of people after whom roads in Tel Aviv have been named are of such historical importance that they deserve recognition.

 Rothschild Boulevard (Hebrew: שדרות רוטשילד‎‎, Sderot Rotshild) is one of the principal streets in the center of Tel Aviv beginning in Neve Tzedek at its southwestern edge and running north to Habima Theatre. It is one of the most expensive streets in the city, being one of the city's main tourist attractions.  It features a wide, tree-lined central strip with pedestrian and bike lanes. Rothschild Boulevard was initially called Rehov HaAm ("Street of the people"). Later, the residents requested it to be renamed in honor of Baron Edmond James de Rothschild.  The Boulevard is an arts district, with galleries including Alon Segev Gallery, and Sommer Contemporary Art.

 Baron Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild (19 August 1845 – 2 November 1934) was a French member of the Rothschild banking family.  A strong supporter of Zionism his large donations lent significant support to the movement during its early years, which helped lead to the establishment of the State of Israel.

 Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel GCB, OM, GBE, PC (6 November 1870 – 5 February 1963), was a British Liberal politician who was the party leader from 1931 to 1935. He was the first nominally-practising Jew, although a personal atheist, to serve as a Cabinet minister and to become the leader of a major British political party. He also served as a diplomat.  Educated at University College School in Hampstead, London and Balliol College, Oxford. He put forward the idea of establishing a British protectorate over Palestine in 1915, and his ideas influenced the Balfour Declaration.  He was appointed to the position of High Commissioner in 1920, before the Council of the League of Nations approved a British mandate for Palestine.  He served as High Commissioner until 1925.  He recognised Hebrew as one of the three official languages of the territory. He was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) on 11 June 1920.

 Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg (18 August 1856 – 2 January 1927), primarily known by his Hebrew name and pen name,  Ahad Ha'am was a Hebrew essayist, and one of the foremost pre-state Zionist thinkers. He is known as the founder of cultural Zionism. With his secular vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Israel, he confronted Theodor Herzl.  Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ha'am strived for "a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews".

Theodor Herzl (Hebrew: תאודור הֶרְצֵלTe'odor Hertsel, Hungarian: Herzl Tivadar; May 2, 1860 – July 3, 1904), born Benjamin Ze'ev Herzl (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב הֶרְצֵלBinyamin Ze'ev Hertsel), also known in Hebrew as חוֹזֵה הַמְדִינָה‎, Chozeh HaMedinah (lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was one of the fathers of modern political Zionism.  Herzl formed the World Zionist Organization and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine in an effort to form a Jewish state. Though he died long before its establishment, he is generally considered a father of the State of Israel, formed in 1948.  While Herzl is often mistakenly identified as the first major Zionist activist, scholars such as Yehuda Bibas, Zvi Hirsch Kalischer and Judah Alkalai were promoting Zionist ideas before him. 


 Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor. He fought in the Second Boer War and also in the First world War, in which he led the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign against the Ottoman Empire in the conquest of Palestine. 

Honouring Jerusalem on foot: Allenby dismounted and entered the city on foot through the Jaffa Gate, together with his officers, in deliberate contrast to the perceived arrogance of the Kaiser's entry into Jerusalem on horseback in 1898 which was not well received by the local citizens.  He did this out of respect for the status of Jerusalem as the Holy City important to Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The people of Jerusalem saw Allenby's entrance on foot as a sign of his modesty.
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